Chickpeas

The chickpeas, also known as a garbanzo bean, ceci bean, sanagalu, chana, hummus and Bengal gram has an interesting fact behind its name. It’s called Chickpea because it looks like baby chick. This pulse is estimated to be at least 7,500 years old and was originally cultivated at Mesopotamia and The eastern Mediterranean. Currently, it is grown in India, Middle East and various parts of Africa. This highly nutritious pulse is ranked third in the important list of the food legumes that are cultivated throughout the world. Chickpeas have mainly two types i.e. Desi and Kabuli.

India is the largest producer of Chickpeas and approx 80-90% supply of Chickpeas to the world is from India.
Seeding of Chickpeas can be done into standing or tilted stubble and fallow. Kabuli chickpeas are planted when soil temperature at a depth of 2 inches to 3 inches reaches at least 10ºC while Desi types are planted in soil that is 4 ºC or above to reduce soil-burn diseases.
Chickpea is an annual crop, cultivated in cool season. Fertile sandy & loam soil in various parts of India provide perfect condition for Chickpea growth. Indian weather conditions of 21 ºC to 26 ºC daytime temperatures and 17 ºC to 21 ºC night temperatures also favor this crop. Chickpeas have deep tap root system so they can endure drought conditions by extracting water from deeper soil. Maturing time require for Chickpeas is 120 days.
 
Scientific Classification
 
KingdomPlantae
(unranked)Angiosperms
(unranked)Eudicots
(unranked)Rosids
OrderFabales
FamilyFabaceae
GenusCicer
SpeciesC. arietinum
Binomial nameCicer arietinum L.
 

Varieties of Chickpeas

There are mainly two types of Chickpeas: Desi and Kabuli. This classification is based on seed size, colour, thickness and shape of the seed coat.
 
Desi Chickpeas are smaller, angular seeds with thick seed coats that range in colour from light tan and speckled to solid black. This type of Chickpea is mainly grown in India, Bangladesh, parts of Pakistan, Ethiopia, Mexico, and Iran. Desi Chickpeas are the most widely grown under dry land.
 
Kabuli chickpeas have larger seeds with paper thin seed coats that range in colour from white to pale cream to tan. Kabuli Chickpeas is mainly cultivated in Southern Europe, Northern Africa, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Chile, also introduced during the 18th century to India.
In compare with Kabuli chickpeas, Desi chickpeas have a markedly higher fiber content and hence a very low glycemic index which may make them suitable for people with blood sugar problems.
 
State
Recommended Varieties
Andhra PradeshICCV-2, ICCV-37, ICCV-4, ICCV-10
AssamKWR-108, BG-256, L-550, KPG-59
Gujarat    Pusa-319, Vijay, ICCV-4, Pusa-240, GG-1, Pusa-1053
HaryanaHaryana Chana-1, GNG-469, Pusa-362, Gora Hisari, Karnal Chana, Gaurav, H-208, H-335, Pusa-1053
Himachal PradeshBBG-1, Haryana Chana-1, L-550
Jammu & KashmiGNG-469, L-550, PBG-1, Haryana Chana-1
KarnatakaBDN 9-3, ICCV-10, ICCV-2 Annegiri-1
PunjabPBG-1, GNG-469, Haryana Chana-1, Gaurav, L-550, C-235, G-543, Pusa-1053, GPF-2, PDG-3
RajasthanGNG-416, GNG-469, GNG-663, PBG-1, L-550, Pusa-256, RSG-44, Pusa-1053, PDG 84-1
Tamil NaduICCV-10, BDN 9-3, CO-3, CO-4
Uttar PradeshKWR-108, Avrodhi, BG-256, K-850, Pant G-186, Pusa-372, Radhey, JG-315,
Uday (KPG-75), Pusa-1003, Pusa-1053
Madhya PradeshJG-74, JG-315, Vijay, Pusa-256, Phule G-5, Pusa-1053
MaharashtraVijay, Phule G-5, Vishal, ICCV-10, Pusa-1053
OrissaRadhey, ICCV-10, L-550, Pusa-372, Pusa-1003
West BengalPusa-372, KWR-108, KPG-59, BG-256, Pusa-1003
BiharKWR-108, Avrodhi, BG-256, Pant G-114, Pusa-209, L-550, Pusa-1003
North Eastern StatesKWR-108, Avrodhi, KPG-59, BG-256

Here is brief idea of state wise Chickpeas varieties:

Desi Chickpeas varieties

 
TypeMaturity duration(days)SpecificationYield potential(quintals / hectare)
Avrodhi150-155·       Medium tall
·       Semi erect
·       Brown colour
25-30
Pant G-18612522-25
Gaurav140-145·       Medium
·       Semi erect
·       Grain is bold and brownish yellow
23-30
Uday (KP -75)140-145·       Medium size
·       Brown colour
20-25
Pusa-256145-150·       Bold and brown colour22-25
Pusa – 362145-155·       Medium size25-30
Pusa-372120-140·       Medium size
·       Susceptible to wilt diseases
18-22
JG-315145-150·       Resistance to wilt disease25-30
Haryana Chana-1135-145·       Grain colour is Bright yellow
·       Resistance to wilt disease
22-25
Gora Hisari140-150
·       Bold and light brown

·       Suitable for irrigated areas only
18-20
K-850145-150·       Seeds are round, smooth, reddish-brown25-30
Pant G-114150·       Seeds are brown30-35
H-208·       Seeds are brown and medium bold25-30
H-355160·       Seeds are small and brownish-yellow20-25
Radhey150·       Smooth, light brown and bold25-30
C-235145-150·       Yellowish-brown in colour
·       Medium size
30-35
G-543·       Grow in Punjab and Haryana20-25
BR -78142-145·       Green and medium size seed20
ST-4155-158·       Brown seeded
·       Semi spreading
20-25
RS-10155-158·       Brown seeded
·       Semi spreading
20-25
RS-11Medium·       Medium bold
·       Brown color
20-25
PUSA-209145-165·       Medium bold
·       Light brown
25-30
BDN-9-395-100·       Yellowish-brown seed10-12
Annegri-1100·       Yellowish-brown seeds
·       Medium size
10-15
Phule G-5·       Pink seeded variety
·       Medium size
·       Round smooth seed coat
12-15
C-390-100·       Seeds are yellowish-brown
·       Medium size
15
B-124135-140·       Small seeded variety24

Kabuli Chickpeas varieties

 
TypeMaturity duration
(days)
SpecificationYield potential
(quintals / hectare)
C-104170
Salmon colour

Very bold seeds are creamy white

Double the size of desi gram
15-20
L-550160Very early flowering among all the kabuli types18-22
L-144Seeds are bold and whitish-orange12-15
Pusa-1003130-135
Extra bold seeds

Resistance to wilt disease
25
Pusa-1053130-140
Extra bold seeds

Essential to wilt disease
25
Sadabahar145-160Green colour grain

Grade specification of Chickpeas

Desi Chickpeas Specification 

Desi ChickpeasValues
Foreign Matter
1%
Green (Cotyledon color), Immature, shrunken, shriveled seeds
3%
Broken and Splits
2%
Damaged and Weeviled
3% (Weeviled 2% max.)
Moisture
10%
Varietal Admixture
3% (max)
HS Code: 07132000
 

Kabuli Chickpeas Specification

Chickpeas
75/80
counts
58/60
counts
44/46
counts
42/44
counts
40/42

counts
Moisture (V/W)
12% max.
12% max.
12% max.
12% max.
12% max.
Broken/Split/Insect Infested
2.5% max.
2% max.
2% max.
2% max.
2% max.
Aborted/Green/Brown Seeds
6.5% max
2% max.
1%max.
1% max.
1% max.
Stained Seeds
6.5% max
1%max.
0.5% max
0.5% max
0.5% max
Smooth Seeds
6.5% (max)
1%max.
0.5% max
0.5% max
0.5% max
Extra. Foreign matter (by weight)
0.2% max
0.2% max
0.2% max
0.2% max
0.2% max
Weevil Damage
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Total Defects (by weight)
9.2% max
6.2% max
4.2%max
4.2%max
4.2%max
HS Code: 07132000

Nutrition Fact 

 
Desi Seed
Kabuli Seed
Chickpea Straw
Protein (%)
20.5
19.7
4.5 - 6.5
TDN (%)
44 - 46
D.E. (swine) (Kcal/kg)
3200-3400
3400-3500
M.E. (swine) (Kcal/kg)
2980-3170
3170-3260
Crude Fibre (%)
9.1
3.4
Fat (E.E.) (%)
4.8
7.3
Lysine (%)
1.37
1.29
Methionine (%)
0.31
0.26
Threonine (%)
0.73
0.66
Moreover Chickpeas are an excellent source of Fiber, Folic Acid (Folate), Iron, Manganese, Copper and good source of Iron and Phosphorus. To lower cholesterol chickpeas are best option as they have high protein and fiber.
 

Usage in daily life

Chickpeas are one of the most popular vegetarian foods; this can be prepared in varieties of ways for ‘n’ number of dishes. Unripe chickpeas can be eaten raw while mature chickpeas cooked and eaten in salad. This can also cooked and ground into a paste (hummus). Chole-bhature is the famous Indian cuisine made from Kabuli Chickpeas. Split chickpeas are used to make dal. In Philippines, chickpea are preserved and served as sweet even they can be fermented to male alcoholic drink and also brewed as a coffee substitute.
In U.S. common use of chickpeas is to use as an ingredient in soups while in North America, main use of Kabuli chickpeas is to make salad. Chickpeas are also marketed dry chickpeas and ground flour for baking purpose.

References 

HAVE YOU REGISTERED FOR THE PULSES CONCLAVE 2018?
Register Now
Join us in New Delhi