Chickpeas

The chickpeas, also known as a garbanzo bean, ceci bean, sanagalu, chana, hummus and Bengal gram has an interesting fact behind its name. It’s called Chickpea because it looks like baby chick. This pulse is estimated to be at least 7,500 years old and was originally cultivated at Mesopotamia and The eastern Mediterranean. Currently, it is grown in India, Middle East and various parts of Africa. This highly nutritious pulse is ranked third in the important list of the food legumes that are cultivated throughout the world. Chickpeas have mainly two types i.e. Desi and Kabuli.

India is the largest producer of Chickpeas and approx 80-90% supply of Chickpeas to the world is from India.
Seeding of Chickpeas can be done into standing or tilted stubble and fallow. Kabuli chickpeas are planted when soil temperature at a depth of 2 inches to 3 inches reaches at least 10ºC while Desi types are planted in soil that is 4 ºC or above to reduce soil-burn diseases.
Chickpea is an annual crop, cultivated in cool season. Fertile sandy & loam soil in various parts of India provide perfect condition for Chickpea growth. Indian weather conditions of 21 ºC to 26 ºC daytime temperatures and 17 ºC to 21 ºC night temperatures also favor this crop. Chickpeas have deep tap root system so they can endure drought conditions by extracting water from deeper soil. Maturing time require for Chickpeas is 120 days.
 
Scientific Classification
 

Kingdom Plantae
(unranked) Angiosperms
(unranked) Eudicots
(unranked) Rosids
Order Fabales
Family Fabaceae
Genus Cicer
Species C. arietinum
Binomial name Cicer arietinum L.

 

Varieties of Chickpeas

There are mainly two types of Chickpeas: Desi and Kabuli. This classification is based on seed size, colour, thickness and shape of the seed coat.
 
Desi Chickpeas are smaller, angular seeds with thick seed coats that range in colour from light tan and speckled to solid black. This type of Chickpea is mainly grown in India, Bangladesh, parts of Pakistan, Ethiopia, Mexico, and Iran. Desi Chickpeas are the most widely grown under dry land.
 
Kabuli chickpeas have larger seeds with paper thin seed coats that range in colour from white to pale cream to tan. Kabuli Chickpeas is mainly cultivated in Southern Europe, Northern Africa, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Chile, also introduced during the 18th century to India.
In compare with Kabuli chickpeas, Desi chickpeas have a markedly higher fiber content and hence a very low glycemic index which may make them suitable for people with blood sugar problems.
 

State
Recommended Varieties
Andhra Pradesh ICCV-2, ICCV-37, ICCV-4, ICCV-10
Assam KWR-108, BG-256, L-550, KPG-59
Gujarat     Pusa-319, Vijay, ICCV-4, Pusa-240, GG-1, Pusa-1053
Haryana Haryana Chana-1, GNG-469, Pusa-362, Gora Hisari, Karnal Chana, Gaurav, H-208, H-335, Pusa-1053
Himachal Pradesh BBG-1, Haryana Chana-1, L-550
Jammu & Kashmi GNG-469, L-550, PBG-1, Haryana Chana-1
Karnataka BDN 9-3, ICCV-10, ICCV-2 Annegiri-1
Punjab PBG-1, GNG-469, Haryana Chana-1, Gaurav, L-550, C-235, G-543, Pusa-1053, GPF-2, PDG-3
Rajasthan GNG-416, GNG-469, GNG-663, PBG-1, L-550, Pusa-256, RSG-44, Pusa-1053, PDG 84-1
Tamil Nadu ICCV-10, BDN 9-3, CO-3, CO-4
Uttar Pradesh KWR-108, Avrodhi, BG-256, K-850, Pant G-186, Pusa-372, Radhey, JG-315,
Uday (KPG-75), Pusa-1003, Pusa-1053
Madhya Pradesh JG-74, JG-315, Vijay, Pusa-256, Phule G-5, Pusa-1053
Maharashtra Vijay, Phule G-5, Vishal, ICCV-10, Pusa-1053
Orissa Radhey, ICCV-10, L-550, Pusa-372, Pusa-1003
West Bengal Pusa-372, KWR-108, KPG-59, BG-256, Pusa-1003
Bihar KWR-108, Avrodhi, BG-256, Pant G-114, Pusa-209, L-550, Pusa-1003
North Eastern States KWR-108, Avrodhi, KPG-59, BG-256

Here is brief idea of state wise Chickpeas varieties:

Desi Chickpeas varieties

 

Type Maturity duration(days) Specification Yield potential(quintals / hectare)
Avrodhi 150-155 ·       Medium tall
·       Semi erect
·       Brown colour
25-30
Pant G-186 125 22-25
Gaurav 140-145 ·       Medium
·       Semi erect
·       Grain is bold and brownish yellow
23-30
Uday (KP -75) 140-145 ·       Medium size
·       Brown colour
20-25
Pusa-256 145-150 ·       Bold and brown colour 22-25
Pusa – 362 145-155 ·       Medium size 25-30
Pusa-372 120-140 ·       Medium size
·       Susceptible to wilt diseases
18-22
JG-315 145-150 ·       Resistance to wilt disease 25-30
Haryana Chana-1 135-145 ·       Grain colour is Bright yellow
·       Resistance to wilt disease
22-25
Gora Hisari 140-150
·       Bold and light brown

·       Suitable for irrigated areas only
18-20
K-850 145-150 ·       Seeds are round, smooth, reddish-brown 25-30
Pant G-114 150 ·       Seeds are brown 30-35
H-208 ·       Seeds are brown and medium bold 25-30
H-355 160 ·       Seeds are small and brownish-yellow 20-25
Radhey 150 ·       Smooth, light brown and bold 25-30
C-235 145-150 ·       Yellowish-brown in colour
·       Medium size
30-35
G-543 ·       Grow in Punjab and Haryana 20-25
BR -78 142-145 ·       Green and medium size seed 20
ST-4 155-158 ·       Brown seeded
·       Semi spreading
20-25
RS-10 155-158 ·       Brown seeded
·       Semi spreading
20-25
RS-11 Medium ·       Medium bold
·       Brown color
20-25
PUSA-209 145-165 ·       Medium bold
·       Light brown
25-30
BDN-9-3 95-100 ·       Yellowish-brown seed 10-12
Annegri-1 100 ·       Yellowish-brown seeds
·       Medium size
10-15
Phule G-5 ·       Pink seeded variety
·       Medium size
·       Round smooth seed coat
12-15
C-3 90-100 ·       Seeds are yellowish-brown
·       Medium size
15
B-124 135-140 ·       Small seeded variety 24

Kabuli Chickpeas varieties

 

Type Maturity duration
(days)
Specification Yield potential
(quintals / hectare)
C-104 170
Salmon colour

Very bold seeds are creamy white

Double the size of desi gram
15-20
L-550 160 Very early flowering among all the kabuli types 18-22
L-144 Seeds are bold and whitish-orange 12-15
Pusa-1003 130-135
Extra bold seeds

Resistance to wilt disease
25
Pusa-1053 130-140
Extra bold seeds

Essential to wilt disease
25
Sadabahar 145-160 Green colour grain

Grade specification of Chickpeas

Desi Chickpeas Specification 

Desi Chickpeas Values
Foreign Matter
1%
Green (Cotyledon color), Immature, shrunken, shriveled seeds
3%
Broken and Splits
2%
Damaged and Weeviled
3% (Weeviled 2% max.)
Moisture
10%
Varietal Admixture
3% (max)

HS Code: 07132000
 

Kabuli Chickpeas Specification

Chickpeas
75/80
counts
58/60
counts
44/46
counts
42/44
counts
40/42

counts
Moisture (V/W)
12% max.
12% max.
12% max.
12% max.
12% max.
Broken/Split/Insect Infested
2.5% max.
2% max.
2% max.
2% max.
2% max.
Aborted/Green/Brown Seeds
6.5% max
2% max.
1%max.
1% max.
1% max.
Stained Seeds
6.5% max
1%max.
0.5% max
0.5% max
0.5% max
Smooth Seeds
6.5% (max)
1%max.
0.5% max
0.5% max
0.5% max
Extra. Foreign matter (by weight)
0.2% max
0.2% max
0.2% max
0.2% max
0.2% max
Weevil Damage
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Total Defects (by weight)
9.2% max
6.2% max
4.2%max
4.2%max
4.2%max

HS Code: 07132000

Nutrition Fact 

 
Desi Seed
Kabuli Seed
Chickpea Straw
Protein (%)
20.5
19.7
4.5 - 6.5
TDN (%)
44 - 46
D.E. (swine) (Kcal/kg)
3200-3400
3400-3500
M.E. (swine) (Kcal/kg)
2980-3170
3170-3260
Crude Fibre (%)
9.1
3.4
Fat (E.E.) (%)
4.8
7.3
Lysine (%)
1.37
1.29
Methionine (%)
0.31
0.26
Threonine (%)
0.73
0.66

Moreover Chickpeas are an excellent source of Fiber, Folic Acid (Folate), Iron, Manganese, Copper and good source of Iron and Phosphorus. To lower cholesterol chickpeas are best option as they have high protein and fiber.
 

Usage in daily life

Chickpeas are one of the most popular vegetarian foods; this can be prepared in varieties of ways for ‘n’ number of dishes. Unripe chickpeas can be eaten raw while mature chickpeas cooked and eaten in salad. This can also cooked and ground into a paste (hummus). Chole-bhature is the famous Indian cuisine made from Kabuli Chickpeas. Split chickpeas are used to make dal. In Philippines, chickpea are preserved and served as sweet even they can be fermented to male alcoholic drink and also brewed as a coffee substitute.
In U.S. common use of chickpeas is to use as an ingredient in soups while in North America, main use of Kabuli chickpeas is to make salad. Chickpeas are also marketed dry chickpeas and ground flour for baking purpose.

References 

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