• Pigeon Pea

    Pigeon Pea 1 2 3 4 5 The pigeon pea is also known as Gandule bean, tropical green pea, kadios, congo pea, gungo pea, gunga pea, fio-fio, mgbumgbu, toor dal. The centre of origin of pigeon pea is eastern part of India. This crop is cultivated since 3,500 years. Now days pigeon peas are widely cultivated in all tropical and semitropical regions. India is the major producer of pigeon pea, appx. 82% of total production is grown in India. Apart from India, eastern Africa and Central America are the world’s main pigeon pea-producing regions. Scientific Classification of Pigeon Peas Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Fabales Family:  Fabaceae Genus:  Cajanus Species:  C. cajan Binomial name Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. Health benefits of Pigeon pea Excellent source of protein For vegetarians pigeon pea is the safest and highest source of protein, which helps in muscle and organ development. Vitamins and minerals Pigeon pea contains vitamins and minerals such as thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6, folate, vitamin A along with calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium zinc and sodium. Liver protection: Pigeon peas are also helpful in liver protection if we consume on regular basis. Research studies show that when pigeon pea given to test mice with damaged livers showed a substantial improvement in the condition. Not only in healing it also showed sustained liver protection when given regularly. Can treat diarrhea and dysentery Traditionally it’s believed that young leaves of this plant are useful in treating diarrhea and dysentery. The leaves are taken and made into a paste and consumed. Alternatively, the juice of young leaves can be given for treating diarrhea and dysentery.   Nutrition fact Pigeon peas, mature, raw  Amount per 100gms Calories 343 % Daily Value* >Total fat           1.49 g Sodium17 mg Total Carbohydrate  62.78g Dietary fiber15 g Sugarn/a Protein21.7 g Thiamin (Vitamin B1)0.643 mg(56%) Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)0.187 mg (16%) Niacin (Vitamin B3)2.965 mg (20%) Pantothenic acid(B5)1.266 mg (25%) Vitamin B60.283 mg (22%) Folate (Vitamin B9)456 µg (114%) Choline0.00 mg (0%) Vitamin C0 mg Vitamin E0.0 mg Vitamin K0.0 µg Calcium130 mg (13%) Iron5.23 mg (40%) Magnesium183 mg (52%) Manganese1.791 mg (85%) Phosphorus367 mg (52%) Potassium1392 mg (30%) Sodium17 mg (1%) Zinc2.76 mg (29%) Per cent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Pigeon Peas, immature, raw Amount per 100gms Calories136 Kcal % Daily Value* Total fat1.64 g Sodium5 mg Total Carbohydrate23.88 g Dietary fiber5.1 g Sugar3 g Protein7.2 g Thiamin (Vitamin B1)0.4 mg (35%) Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)0.17 mg (14%) Niacin (Vitamin B3)2.2 mg (15%) Pantothenic acid(B5)0.68 mg (14%) Vitamin B60.068 mg (5%) Folate (Vitamin B9)173 µg (43%) Choline45.8 mg (9%) Vitamin C39 mg Vitamin E0.39 mg Vitamin K24 µg Calcium42 mg (4%) Iron1.6 mg (12%) Magnesium68 mg (19%) Manganese0.574 mg (27%) Phosphorus127 mg (18%) Potassium552 mg (12%) Sodium5 mg (0%) Zinc1.04 mg (11%) Per cent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.


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  • Cow Pea

    1 2 3 4 5 Cowpea is mainly cultivated in Africa, Asia, Europe, United States and Central and South America. Homeland of cowpeas is Southern Africa which later moved to East and West Africa and Asia. This is a food and animal feed crop. It is assumed that name “cowpea” was derived because it was an important livestock feed for cows in the U.S. 85% sand with less than 0.2% organic matter and low level of phosphorus is best composition for this crop to grow. Generally this is well adapted in drier regions where other food legumes do not perform well.  In South America, it is known as black eyed peas and it is a very common food ingredient.   Scientific Classification of Cow pea KingdomPlantae (unranked):Angiosperms (unranked):Eudicots (unranked):Rosids Order:Fabales Family:Fabaceae Genus:Vigna Species:V. unguiculata Binomial nameVigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.   Varieties of Cow Pea Cowpeas varieties depends upon its bean shape, size and color. Black-eyed or pink-eyed/purple hull peas These white colored seeds have black, pink or purple eye like shape around the hilum. Seeds are not tightly packed or crowded in the pod and are kidney shaped or oblong. Brown-eyed peas These types of cowpeas have green to lavender colored pods. When immature seeds of this type are cooked, it has very tender and a delicate flavor. Crowder peas As the name suggests, this type of cowpeas are “crowded” in the pod and have seed of black, speckled and brown eyed. Cream peas Seeds are cream colored. This type of seeds looks like intermediate between the black-eyed and Crowder types. White acre type Seeds are kidney-shaped with a blunt end, semi crowded and generally tan in color. Clay types These older varieties are medium to dark brown in color and kidney- shaped, but are rarely grown Nutrition Fact Calories 116Calories from fat 6 Total fat 1g1% Saturated fat 0g1% Trans fat Cholesteratol 0 mg0% Sodium 4 mg0% Total Carbohydrate 21 g7% Dietary fiber 6g26% Sugar 3g Protein 8g Vitamin A 0%Vitamin C 1% Calcium 2% Percent daily values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Caloric Ratio of Cowpea   Usage in daily life Cowpeas are used as vegetable and as a grain also. Dried pulses are cooked with vegetables to make a thick soup.  In Tamilnadu and Kerala state of India cake like dish called kozhukattai is made from cowpeas.  Srilankan people used cowpeas in many different ways and famous way is with coconut milk while in Turkey cowpea is boiled covered with olive oil, salt, thyme and garlic sauce and eaten as an appetizer.   References www.nutritiondata.self.com www.nda.agric.za www.iita.org


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  • Horse Gram

    1 2 3 4 Horse Gram which is also known as “Kulath” is a very popular gram used commonly in food recipes in the northern part of India. This lesser known gram world over has a bounty of benefits, that many of us stay deprived, owing to lack of awareness and knowledge about the gram. This gram is generally used as a cattle feed. The plant of Horse gram is known to have antioxidant and diuretic action and be found to be extremely useful and recommended by doctors in the treatment of haemorrhoids, diarrhoea and haemorrhage. The gram is further beneficial in cases of bleeding during pregnancy, menstrual disorders, colic and weak liver, spleen enlargement, leucorrhoea, hypertension, kidney stones, gall stones and many other serious health concerns. This gram is rich in B-complex vitamins and protein, and is highly delicious for the taste buds and nutritious as well. In India, the horse gram is mostly prescribed as an Ayurvedic medicine for conditions like difficulty in breathing, cough, ulcers, gastric problems, excessive perspiration, and worm infections and also helps control joint pain. However, this gram is not suggested for women during pregnancy and those with tuberculosis. Those who suffer from kidney stones or gall stones, can consume horse gram by soaking a little quantity in a glass of water for about 8 to 10 hours, and then it can be mashed up to be consumed two times a day. The horse gram is an excellent food for those looking to reduce weight. This Indian brown lentil is known by different names in India –Kulthikalai (Bengali), Kulthi (in Hindi), Ulavalu (Telegu), Kollu (in Tamil), Hurali (Kannad), Kadthi dal (Gujarati), Kolatha(Oriya), Kulith (Marathi), Gahat (Kumaoni) and Muthira (Malayalam).  Because of lack of commercial interest, teh horse gram is generally cultivated as a cattle fodder. According to a study by scientists from the Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, they have found that the unprocessed raw horse gram seeds possess anti-hyperglycemic properties and qualities that reduce insulin resistance. Hence, horse gram is a highly recommended food for diabetics. On a comparative analysis between horse gram seeds and their sprouts, it was found that the seeds have greater beneficial effects on the health of hyperglycemic individuals over the sprouts. Calling horse gram as a poor man’s pulse crop in South India, it is generally used as a body warming food for rich energy in winters. Further study by scientists indicate that the horse gram seeds are rich in polyphenols, proteins and flavonoids, the major anti-oxidants present in fruits and other materials. Some of the benefits with specified consumption patterns deliver huge health benefits from the horse gram, they are: When horse gram is mixed with asafoetida, dry ginger and “veed salt”, it helps treat stomach pain immediately. Use of horse gram in diet relieves the pain caused from dry piles. Use in women dietary intake, as horse gram helps in purification during menstruations. A semi-liquid solution of horse gram in water helps reduce flatulence and gas. Eating kulath regularly keep you afar of worm infections and tones up the digestive to prevent acidity and flatulence. For immediate relief from cold, take a small quantity of horse gram, boil it and cool it. Then mix this into a grinder for semi solid paste, add salt and pepper to taste. This will offer immediate relief from sore throat, cold and cough. In Andhra Pradesh, horse gram soup is recommended for persons suffering from jaundice, or water retention and also helps compensate iron deficiencies in the body. In Pahari regions of northern India, this legume is used to make khichdi. 


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  • Black Gram

    1 2 3 4 Black gram is mainly cultivated in Indian subcontinent. Black lentil is nothing but the split black gram and after  removing black skin it is sold as white lentil. In India Black gram is popular as “Urad dal” and it is highly prized pulse among all the pulses. Apart from India it is also cultivated in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Most suitable climate to cultivate Black gram is 27-30º C with heavy rainfall. This annual crop prefers loamy soil which has high water preservation capability. Black gram grows normally in 90-120 days and it also enriches the soil with nitrogen.   India is major producer and consumer country of black gram.    Scientific Classification of Black gram Varieties of Black gramImportant varieties of Black gram are Type 27, Type 56, Pusa 1, Pant 430, Khargone 3, ADT 1 to 3, HPU 6, T 65, LBG 402, LBG 22, LBG 20.   Health benefits of Black gram Best source of protein, fat and carbohydrates. Black gram also contains iron, folic acid, calcium, magnesium, potassium and vitamin B which are necessary for our body It has two types of fibers: soluble and insoluble. Insoluble fiber helps to prevent constipation and soluble fiber helps in our digestion system. It also helps to reduce cholesterol which ultimately improves cardiovascular health. High amount of magnesium and folate of Black gram support blood circulation. Black gram has medical properties which help to heal Rheumatic pains, stiff shoulder and contracted knees Usage in daily life Main and important use of Black gram is to make Dal, even split lentil is used for same purpose. Apart from this it is also used in making Uttappa, Dosa, Idali, Vada, Dal Makhhani etc.  


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  • Chickpeas

    1 2 3 4 The chickpeas, also known as a garbanzo bean, ceci bean, sanagalu, chana, hummus and Bengal gram has an interesting fact behind its name. It’s called Chickpea because it looks like baby chick. This pulse is estimated to be at least 7,500 years old and was originally cultivated at Mesopotamia and The eastern Mediterranean. Currently, it is grown in India, Middle East and various parts of Africa. This highly nutritious pulse is ranked third in the important list of the food legumes that are cultivated throughout the world. Chickpeas have mainly two types i.e. Desi and Kabuli. India is the largest producer of Chickpeas and approx 80-90% supply of Chickpeas to the world is from India. Seeding of Chickpeas can be done into standing or tilted stubble and fallow. Kabuli chickpeas are planted when soil temperature at a depth of 2 inches to 3 inches reaches at least 10ºC while Desi types are planted in soil that is 4 ºC or above to reduce soil-burn diseases. Chickpea is an annual crop, cultivated in cool season. Fertile sandy & loam soil in various parts of India provide perfect condition for Chickpea growth. Indian weather conditions of 21 ºC to 26 ºC daytime temperatures and 17 ºC to 21 ºC night temperatures also favor this crop. Chickpeas have deep tap root system so they can endure drought conditions by extracting water from deeper soil. Maturing time require for Chickpeas is 120 days.   Scientific Classification   KingdomPlantae (unranked)Angiosperms (unranked)Eudicots (unranked)Rosids OrderFabales FamilyFabaceae GenusCicer SpeciesC. arietinum Binomial nameCicer arietinum L.   Varieties of Chickpeas There are mainly two types of Chickpeas: Desi and Kabuli. This classification is based on seed size, colour, thickness and shape of the seed coat.   Desi Chickpeas are smaller, angular seeds with thick seed coats that range in colour from light tan and speckled to solid black. This type of Chickpea is mainly grown in India, Bangladesh, parts of Pakistan, Ethiopia, Mexico, and Iran. Desi Chickpeas are the most widely grown under dry land.   Kabuli chickpeas have larger seeds with paper thin seed coats that range in colour from white to pale cream to tan. Kabuli Chickpeas is mainly cultivated in Southern Europe, Northern Africa, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Chile, also introduced during the 18th century to India. In compare with Kabuli chickpeas, Desi chickpeas have a markedly higher fiber content and hence a very low glycemic index which may make them suitable for people with blood sugar problems.   StateRecommended Varieties Andhra PradeshICCV-2, ICCV-37, ICCV-4, ICCV-10 AssamKWR-108, BG-256, L-550, KPG-59 Gujarat    Pusa-319, Vijay, ICCV-4, Pusa-240, GG-1, Pusa-1053 HaryanaHaryana Chana-1, GNG-469, Pusa-362, Gora Hisari, Karnal Chana, Gaurav, H-208, H-335, Pusa-1053 Himachal PradeshBBG-1, Haryana Chana-1, L-550 Jammu & KashmiGNG-469, L-550, PBG-1, Haryana Chana-1 KarnatakaBDN 9-3, ICCV-10, ICCV-2 Annegiri-1 PunjabPBG-1, GNG-469, Haryana Chana-1, Gaurav, L-550, C-235, G-543, Pusa-1053, GPF-2, PDG-3 RajasthanGNG-416, GNG-469, GNG-663, PBG-1, L-550, Pusa-256, RSG-44, Pusa-1053, PDG 84-1 Tamil NaduICCV-10, BDN 9-3, CO-3, CO-4 Uttar PradeshKWR-108, Avrodhi, BG-256, K-850, Pant G-186, Pusa-372, Radhey, JG-315, Uday (KPG-75), Pusa-1003, Pusa-1053 Madhya PradeshJG-74, JG-315, Vijay, Pusa-256, Phule G-5, Pusa-1053 MaharashtraVijay, Phule G-5, Vishal, ICCV-10, Pusa-1053 OrissaRadhey, ICCV-10, L-550, Pusa-372, Pusa-1003 West BengalPusa-372, KWR-108, KPG-59, BG-256, Pusa-1003 BiharKWR-108, Avrodhi, BG-256, Pant G-114, Pusa-209, L-550, Pusa-1003 North Eastern StatesKWR-108, Avrodhi, KPG-59, BG-256 Here is brief idea of state wise Chickpeas varieties: Desi Chickpeas varieties   TypeMaturity duration(days)SpecificationYield potential(quintals / hectare) Avrodhi150-155·       Medium tall ·       Semi erect ·       Brown colour25-30 Pant G-18612522-25 Gaurav140-145·       Medium ·       Semi erect ·       Grain is bold and brownish yellow23-30 Uday (KP -75)140-145·       Medium size ·       Brown colour20-25 Pusa-256145-150·       Bold and brown colour22-25 Pusa – 362145-155·       Medium size25-30 Pusa-372120-140·       Medium size ·       Susceptible to wilt diseases18-22 JG-315145-150·       Resistance to wilt disease25-30 Haryana Chana-1135-145·       Grain colour is Bright yellow ·       Resistance to wilt disease22-25 Gora Hisari140-150·       Bold and light brown ·       Suitable for irrigated areas only18-20 K-850145-150·       Seeds are round, smooth, reddish-brown25-30 Pant G-114150·       Seeds are brown30-35 H-208·       Seeds are brown and medium bold25-30 H-355160·       Seeds are small and brownish-yellow20-25 Radhey150·       Smooth, light brown and bold25-30 C-235145-150·       Yellowish-brown in colour ·       Medium size30-35 G-543·       Grow in Punjab and Haryana20-25 BR -78142-145·       Green and medium size seed20 ST-4155-158·       Brown seeded ·       Semi spreading20-25 RS-10155-158·       Brown seeded ·       Semi spreading20-25 RS-11Medium·       Medium bold ·       Brown color20-25 PUSA-209145-165·       Medium bold ·       Light brown25-30 BDN-9-395-100·       Yellowish-brown seed10-12 Annegri-1100·       Yellowish-brown seeds ·       Medium size10-15 Phule G-5·       Pink seeded variety ·       Medium size ·       Round smooth seed coat12-15 C-390-100·       Seeds are yellowish-brown ·       Medium size15 B-124135-140·       Small seeded variety24 Kabuli Chickpeas varieties   TypeMaturity duration (days)SpecificationYield potential (quintals / hectare) C-104170Salmon colour Very bold seeds are creamy white Double the size of desi gram15-20 L-550160Very early flowering among all the kabuli types18-22 L-144Seeds are bold and whitish-orange12-15 Pusa-1003130-135Extra bold seeds Resistance to wilt disease25 Pusa-1053130-140Extra bold seeds Essential to wilt disease25 Sadabahar145-160Green colour grain Grade specification of Chickpeas Desi Chickpeas Specification  Desi ChickpeasValues Foreign Matter1% Green (Cotyledon color), Immature, shrunken, shriveled seeds3% Broken and Splits2% Damaged and Weeviled3% (Weeviled 2% max.) Moisture10% Varietal Admixture3% (max) HS Code: 07132000   Kabuli Chickpeas Specification Chickpeas75/80 counts58/60 counts44/46 counts42/44 counts40/42 counts Moisture (V/W)12% max.12% max.12% max.12% max.12% max. Broken/Split/Insect Infested2.5% max.2% max.2% max.2% max.2% max. Aborted/Green/Brown Seeds6.5% max2% max.1%max.1% max.1% max. Stained Seeds6.5% max1%max.0.5% max0.5% max0.5% max Smooth Seeds6.5% (max)1%max.0.5% max0.5% max0.5% max Extra. Foreign matter (by weight)0.2% max0.2% max0.2% max0.2% max0.2% max Weevil DamageNilNilNilNilNil Total Defects (by weight)9.2% max6.2% max4.2%max4.2%max4.2%max HS Code: 07132000 Nutrition Fact   Desi SeedKabuli SeedChickpea Straw Protein (%)20.519.74.5 - 6.5 TDN (%)44 - 46 D.E. (swine) (Kcal/kg)3200-34003400-3500 M.E. (swine) (Kcal/kg)2980-31703170-3260 Crude Fibre (%)9.13.4 Fat (E.E.) (%)4.87.3 Lysine (%)1.371.29 Methionine (%)0.310.26 Threonine (%)0.730.66 Moreover Chickpeas are an excellent source of Fiber, Folic Acid (Folate), Iron, Manganese, Copper and good source of Iron and Phosphorus. To lower cholesterol chickpeas are best option as they have high protein and fiber.   Usage in daily life Chickpeas are one of the most popular vegetarian foods; this can be prepared in varieties of ways for ‘n’ number of dishes. Unripe chickpeas can be eaten raw while mature chickpeas cooked and eaten in salad. This can also cooked and ground into a paste (hummus). Chole-bhature is the famous Indian cuisine made from Kabuli Chickpeas. Split chickpeas are used to make dal. In Philippines, chickpea are preserved and served as sweet even they can be fermented to male alcoholic drink and also brewed as a coffee substitute. In U.S. common use of chickpeas is to use as an ingredient in soups while in North America, main use of Kabuli chickpeas is to make salad. Chickpeas are also marketed dry chickpeas and ground flour for baking purpose. References  http://www.pea-lentil.com/ http://www.agrocrops.com http://www.daff.qld.gov.au http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au http://agropedia.iitk.ac.in http://blbcommodities.com


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  • Green Gram

    1 2 3 4 5 Green Gram, also known as Mung or Golden Gram or Pesalu (in Telugu), PasiPayaru (in Tamil) is the seed of VignaRadiate and is native to the Indian subcontinent. Apart from India it is also cultivated in China, Thailand, Indonesia, Burma, Bangladesh, Laos, Cambodia and also in hot and dry regions of Southern Europe and the Southern United States. Suitable climate for cultivation of Green Gram should be warm humid and within temperature range of 25°C to 35°C, with moderate rains of 80-100cm, well distributed during growing period of 100days. Mung should grow from sea level to as high as 2000 meters. Normally middle of March to last week of June as high temperature and low humidity keep insects and disease infestations at their lowest. In North India, it is cultivated during warm and wet Kharif season and in South India in mild winter season. It is cultivated on a variety of soils, from red laterite soils in South India to black cotton soils in North India and sandy soils in Rajasthan. To cultivate Green Gram a well drained loamy to sandy loam soil is the best, while saline and alkaline soil or waterlogged soils are not at all suitable for cultivation. Scientific Classification of Green Gram KingdomPlantae (unranked)Angiosperms (unranked)Eudicots (unranked)Rosids OrderFabales FamilyFabaceae GenusVigna SpeciesV. radiata Binomial nameVignaradiata(L.) R. Wilczek SynonymsPhaseolusaureusRoxb.   Season and Varieties District/Season Varieties Adipattam (June – July) All districts except Kanyakumari and NilgirisCo 6, Co(Gg) 7, VBN 2, VBN(Gg) 3 Vellore and Thiruvannamalai VRM (Gg) 1, Puratasipattam (September – October) Kanchipuram, Tiruvallur, Dharmapuri, Vellore, Co 6, VBN(Gg) 2, VBN(Gg) 3 Tiruvannamalai, Salem, Namakkal, Cuddalore, Villupuram, Thiruchirapalli, Perumbalur, Erode, Coimbatore, Madurai, Dindigul, Theni, Pudukottai, Pudukkottai, Sivagangi, Ramanthapuram, Virudhunagar, Thothukudi and ThirunelveliVRM(Gg) 1 Vellore and Tiruvannamalai, Margazhi-Thai Pattam (December – January) All districts except Kanyakumari and NilgirisVBN(Gg) 2, VBN(Gg)3 Rice fallows (January – February) Thanjavur, Tiruvarur, Nagapattinam, Cuddalore,ADT 3 Summer (February – March) Thanjavur, Tiruvarur, Nagapattinam, Cuddalore,Co 6, VBN(Gg) 3 Villupuram, Tiruchirapalli, Perambalur, Thiruvallur, Kanchipuram   Varieties of Green gram   Particulars KM 2 CO 4 ADT 3 Paiyur 1 VBN 1 K 1 ParentageHybrid deri­vative of No.127xS.9Mutant of CO 1Hybrid deri­vative of H70-16/ Rajendran/ G65PS from DPT 703Hybrid deri­vative of S.8xPIMS 3Co 4 x ML 65 Year of release197819811988198819891998 50% flowering (days) Duration (days) Grain yield (kg/ha) Rainfed35 – 40 65 – 70 76740 – 45 85 91036 66 50045 – 50 85 – 90 74230 – 35 65 77070 – 75 – 670 Irrigated Plant height (cm) Stem, branches etc. Branches35 – 45 Green stem –1550 60 – 70 Green stem 3 – 4500 (Rice fallows) 35 – 45 Green stem 2 – 3– 5 5- 60 Green 3 – 455 – 60 Green sparsely hairy 2 – 370 – 75 Green, slightly Pubescent 3 – 4 LeavesMedium Broad tripartate and hairyMedium broad, Petiole longBroadMedium, foliate, ovateBroad Pod charactersDark brown and tip coveredGreen when tender & black on dryingDark brownDull greenSparsely hairy , light black podsLong and slightly pubescent, brown Colour of grainShiny greenDull greenGreenDull GreenGreenDull green 100 grain wt (g)3.04.12 – 33 – 53.63.5   Particulars CO 6 VRM(Gg) 1 VBN(Gg) 2 ParentageWGG 37 x CO 5Pure line selection from K 851Cross derivative of VGG 4 x MH 309 Year of release199920012001 50% flowering (days)26 – 3031 – 3530 – 35 Duration (days)62 – 6756 – 6765 – 70 Grain yield (kg/ha) Rainfed9001100750 Irrigated Plant height (cm) 1050 35 – 55


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